Friday, March 13, 2020

Biography of Indias Indira Gandhi

Biography of Indias Indira Gandhi Indira Gandhi, prime minister of India in the early 1980s, feared the growing power of the charismatic Sikh preacher and militant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. Throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, sectarian tension and strife had been growing between Sikhs and Hindus in northern India. Tensions in the region had grown so high that by June of 1984, Indira Gandhi decided to take action. She made a fatal choice - to send in the Indian Army against the Sikh militants in the Golden Temple. Indira Gandhis Early Life Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad (in modern-day Uttar Pradesh), British India. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru, who would go on to become the first prime minister of India following its independence from Britain; her mother, Kamala Nehru, was just 18 years old when the baby arrived. The child was named Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. Indira grew up as an only child. A baby brother born in November of 1924 died after just two days. The Nehru family was very active in the anti-imperial politics of the time; Indiras father was a leader of the nationalist movement  and a close associate of Mohandas Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Sojourn in Europe In March 1930, Kamala and Indira were marching in protest outside of the Ewing Christian College. Indiras mother suffered from heat-stroke, so a young student named Feroz Gandhi rushed to her aid. He would become a close friend of Kamalas, escorting and attending her during her treatment for tuberculosis, first in India and later in Switzerland. Indira also spent time in Switzerland, where her mother died of TB in February of 1936. Indira went to Britain in 1937, where she enrolled at Somerville College, Oxford, but never completed her degree. While there, she began to spend more time with Feroz Gandhi, then a London School of Economics student. The two married in 1942, over the objections of Jawaharlal Nehru, who disliked his son-in-law. (Feroz Gandhi was no relation to Mohandas Gandhi.) Nehru eventually had to accept the marriage. Feroz and Indira Gandhi had two sons, Rajiv, born in 1944, and Sanjay, born in 1946. Early Political Career During the early 1950s, Indira served as an unofficial personal assistant to her father, then the prime minister. In 1955, she became a member of the Congress Partys working committee; within four years, she would be president of that body. Feroz Gandhi had a heart attack in 1958, while Indira and Nehru were in Bhutan on an official state visit. Indira returned home to take care of him. Feroz died in Delhi in 1960 after suffering a second heart attack. Indiras father also died in 1964  and was succeeded as prime minister by Lal Bahadur Shastri. Shastri appointed Indira Gandhi his minister of information and broadcasting; in addition, she was a member of the upper house of parliament, the Rajya Sabha. In 1966, Prime Minister Shastri died unexpectedly. Indira Gandhi was named the new Prime Minister as a compromise candidate. Politicians on both sides of a deepening divide within the Congress Party hoped to be able to control her. They had completely underestimated Nehrus daughter. Prime Minister Gandhi By 1966, the Congress Party was in trouble. It was dividing into two separate factions; Indira Gandhi led the left-wing socialist faction. The 1967 election cycle was grim for the party - it lost almost 60 seats in the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha. Indira was able to keep the Prime Minister seat through a coalition with the Indian Communist and Socialist parties. In 1969, the Indian National Congress Party split in half for good. As prime minister, Indira made some popular moves. She authorized the development of a nuclear weapons program in response to Chinas successful test at Lop Nur in 1967. (India would test its own bomb in 1974.) In order to counterbalance Pakistans friendship with the United States, and also perhaps due to mutual personal antipathy with US President Richard Nixon, she forged a closer relationship with the Soviet Union. In keeping with her socialist principles, Indira abolished the maharajas of Indias various states, doing away with their privileges as well as their titles. She also nationalized the banks in July of 1969, as well as mines and oil companies. Under her stewardship, traditionally famine-prone India became a Green Revolution success story, actually exporting a surplus of wheat, rice and other crops by the early 1970s. In 1971, in response to a flood of refugees from East Pakistan, Indira began a war against Pakistan. The East Pakistani/Indian forces won the war, resulting in the formation of the nation of Bangladesh from what had been East Pakistan. Re-election, Trial, and the State of Emergency In 1972, Indira Gandhis party swept to victory in national parliamentary elections based on the defeat of Pakistan and the slogan of Garibi Hatao, or Eradicate Poverty. Her opponent, Raj Narain of the Socialist Party, charged her with corruption and electoral malpractice. In June of 1975, the High Court in Allahabad ruled for Narain; Indira should have been stripped of her seat in Parliament and barred from elected office for six years. However, Indira Gandhi refused to step down from the prime ministership, despite wide-spread unrest following the verdict. Instead, she had the president declare a state of emergency in India. During the state of emergency, Indira initiated a series of authoritarian changes. She purged the national and state governments of her political opponents, arresting and jailing political activists. To control population growth, she instituted a policy of forced sterilization, under which impoverished men were subjected to involuntary vasectomies (often under appallingly unsanitary conditions). Indiras younger son Sanjay led a move to clear the slums around Delhi; hundreds of people were killed and thousands left homeless when their homes were destroyed. Downfall and Arrests In a key miscalculation, Indira Gandhi called new elections in March  1977. She may have begun to believe her own propaganda, convincing herself that the people of India loved her and approved of her actions during the years-long state of emergency. Her party was trounced at the polls by the Janata Party, which cast the election as a choice between democracy or dictatorship, and Indira left office. In October of 1977, Indira Gandhi was jailed briefly for official corruption. She would be arrested again in December of 1978 on the same charges. However, the Janata Party was struggling. A cobbled-together coalition of four previous opposition parties, it could not agree on a course for the country  and accomplished very little. Indira Emerges Once More By 1980, the people of India had had enough of the ineffectual Janata Party. They reelected Indira Gandhis Congress Party under the slogan of stability. Indira took power again for her fourth term as prime minister. However, her triumph was dampened by the death of her son Sanjay, the heir apparent, in a plane crash in June of that year. By 1982, rumblings of discontent and even outright secessionism were breaking out all over India. In Andhra Pradesh, on the central east coast, the Telangana region (comprising the inland 40%) wanted to break away from the rest of the state. Trouble also flared in the ever-volatile Jammu and Kashmir region in the north. The most serious threat, though, came from Sikh secessionists in Punjab, led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. Operation Bluestar at the Golden Temple In 1983, the Sikh leader Bhindranwale and his armed followers occupied and fortified the second-most holy building in the sacred Golden Temple complex (also called the Harmandir Sahib or Darbar Sahib) in Amritsar, the Indian Punjab. From their position in the Akhal Takt building, Bhindranwale and his followers called for armed resistance to Hindu domination. They were upset that their homeland, Punjab, had been divided between India and Pakistan in the 1947 Partition of India. To make matters worse, the Indian Punjab had been lopped in half once more in 1966 to form the Haryana state, which was dominated by Hindi-speakers. The Punjabis lost their first capital at Lahore to Pakistan in 1947; the newly-built capital at Chandigarh ended up in Haryana two decades later, and the government in Delhi decreed that Haryana and Punjab would simply have to share the city. To right these wrongs, some of Bhindranwales followers called for an entirely new, separate Sikh nation, to be called Khalistan. During this period, Sikh extremists were waging a campaign of terror against Hindus and moderate Sikhs in Punjab. Bhindranwale and his following of heavily armed militants holed up in the Akhal Takt, the second-most holy building after the Golden Temple itself. The leader himself was not necessarily calling for the creation of Khalistan; rather he demanded the implementation of the Anandpur Resolution, which called for the unification and purification of the Sikh community within Punjab. Indira Gandhi decided to send the Indian Army on a frontal assault of the building to capture or kill Bhindranwale. She ordered the attack at the beginning of June  1984, even though June 3rd was the most important Sikh holiday (honoring the martyrdom of the Golden Temples founder), and the complex was full of innocent pilgrims. Interestingly, due to the heavy Sikh presence in the Indian Army, the commander of the attack force, Major General Kuldip Singh Brar, and many of the troops were also Sikhs. In preparation for the attack, all electricity and lines of communication to Punjab were cut off. On June 3, the army surrounded the temple complex with military vehicles and tanks. In the early morning hours of June 5, they launched the attack. According to official Indian government numbers, 492 civilians were killed, including women and children, along with 83 Indian army personnel. Other estimates from hospital workers and eyewitnesses state that more than 2,000 civilians died in the bloodbath. Among those killed were Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and the other militants. To the further outrage of Sikhs worldwide, the Akhal Takt was badly damaged by shells and gunfire. Aftermath and Assassination In the aftermath of Operation Bluestar, a number of Sikh soldiers resigned from the Indian Army. In some areas, there were actual battles between those resigning and those still loyal to the army. On October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi walked out to the garden behind her official residence for an interview with a British journalist. As she passed two of her Sikh bodyguards, they drew their service weapons and opened fire. Beant Singh shot her three times with a pistol, while Satwant Singh fired thirty times with a self-loading rifle. Both men then calmly dropped their weapons and surrendered. Indira Gandhi died that afternoon after undergoing surgery. Beant Singh was shot dead while under arrest; Satwant Singh and alleged conspirator Kehar Singh were later hanged. When news of the Prime Ministers death was broadcast, mobs of Hindus across northern India went on a rampage. In the Anti-Sikh Riots, which lasted for four days, anywhere from 3,000 to 20,000 Sikhs were murdered, many of them burned alive. The violence was particularly bad in Haryana state. Because the Indian government was slow to respond to the pogrom, support for the Sikh separatist Khalistan movement increased markedly in the months following the massacre. Indira Gandhis Legacy Indias Iron Lady left behind a complicated legacy. She was succeeded in the office of Prime Minister by her surviving son, Rajiv Gandhi. This dynastic succession is one of the negative aspects of her legacy - to this day, the Congress Party is so thoroughly identified with the Nehru/Gandhi family that it cannot avoid charges of nepotism. Indira Gandhi also instilled authoritarianism into Indias political processes, warping the democracy to suit her need for power. On the other hand, Indira clearly loved her country  and did leave it in a stronger position relative to neighboring countries. She sought to improve the lives of Indias poorest  and supported industrialization and technological development. On balance, however, Indira Gandhi seems to have done more harm than good during her two stints as the prime minister of India. For more information on women in power, see this list of Female Heads of State in Asia.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Financial aid essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Financial aid - Essay Example It provides a state of the art equipments and highly qualified instructors. I enjoy the classes offered by the Walnut Hill. My passion in music is manifested with the good grades I obtained from my academic and music classes. Walnut Hill is not merely a school but a home for individuals who love art. This serves as an avenue for individuals who have the same interests to collaborate and learn from one another. I usually spend my free time with friends singing and playing music all the time. I consider being in Walnut Hill as a turning point of my life. I have learned to play more musical instruments and to interact with different individuals. Being part of this prestigious school makes me feel special. Somehow, I felt that I have a purpose, and that Walnut Hill will help me accomplish this purpose. Your financial aid will help me pursue my passion for music. It will help me pay for books, rent, and other school expenses. Lastly, it will serve as a means for me to actualize my potential for

Monday, February 10, 2020

TEAM PROCESSES Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

TEAM PROCESSES - Essay Example As a part of customer service, it was required to assist the customers to select the merchandize and offer them suitable products as per their needs. In terms of handling the complaints of the customers, the role had to comply with the company policies of no refund but only exchange. Thus the entire team was dynamic in its work functions with specific purpose of adhering to the company policies and in maintaining the overall profitability of the retail business. This was achieved through improved customer service that played the role of attracting the customers time and again to the retail store. A situation was encountered when the customer wanted a refund of money due to the non-receipt of a free product that was offered with the product. It was found that the stock of the free product was depleted in the retail store for which it could not be provided while selling the primary product to the customer. However, the customer had a non-negotiable approach on his demand. This created an undesired situation which occurred due to lack of effective communication and non-fulfillment of roles and responsibilities of the team. Analysis of team activity: overall effectiveness, limitations, challenges, interactions with other teams The analysis of the overall effectiveness of the team activity has been given below. The activities in the retail sales in the store demand healthy interaction of the different functions of the retail sales. The spontaneous interactions lead to strong co-ordination between the teams and its members. Due to exchange of information, the areas of concern within the team could be addressed. The experience encountered was solely due to lack of co-ordination among the team members and non-availability of updated information on the product sold to the customer. The non-availability of stock of the free offerings with the product was not communicated to the sales person by the store manager who did not inform the same to the customer. The customer af ter buying the product checked later on to find that the free offer was not packed with the sold item by the retail store. This created a sense within the customer of being cheated. For this reason, the customer wanted a refund from the store as the contract of buying and selling was breached by the retail store. This shows the limitations of overall effectiveness of the retail business in dealing with their customers. This is a challenge faced by the team as the there was no free exchange of information. The integral function of the retail store is an aggregation of the individual retail functions (Brannick,  Salas and  Prince, 1997). The communication with other teams is thus important for delivering effective customer service and in sustaining the profitability of their business. Key recommendations for improvement In order to deal with such situation in the future, the key recommendations for improvement of the retail operations are given below. There should be respect among the team members for each other and they should be aligned to overall retail sales activity. The alignment of the roles towards common interest of the overall work of retail sales triggers action from the individual roles that are aimed to make the system error free. In this experience in retail sales, the team members should have exchanged information on

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Factors that Relate to Student Persistence in a Two-Year Vocational Program at a Community College Essay Example for Free

Factors that Relate to Student Persistence in a Two-Year Vocational Program at a Community College Essay Student persistence is one of the many factors that educators try to consider in the goal making students succeed in their education. Schools cater to the academic needs of students and it is the primary role of schools to provide education to children, but nowadays there have been a number of children that have low interest in finishing an education (Smith, 2002). Community colleges are institutions that cater to those children who want to consider taking up a vocational course instead of a bachelor’s degree after graduating from high school. In institutions such as these, there have been a number of studies that shows that students enrolled in this program identified different factors that contribute to their success in the program. The references gathered in this study revealed seven thematic findings with regard to persistence of students enrolled in a community college. These first thematic finding that studies reveal relevant to the success of student enrolled in community colleges is support, this support comes from peers, family members and as well as support from mentors. The second thematic finding is financial support, wherein students saw that being able to be granting a support financially to cater to their education were beneficial for them to continue education. The third thematic findings discusses the different self-variables that contribute to their success, these factors include the determination of a child to succeed and the fear of failing as one of the important factors that made them continue schooling. The fourth thematic finding will discuss all about a student’s background or life experiences that contribute to their persistence in school. The fifth will tackle all about how different techniques that students use in coping with school are beneficial to their stay at school. The sixth will look into how students say that behaving in a professionally during their stay at school became beneficial for their success at school. The seventh and the last will dwell into the different challenges that students face in school, such as stress, as a major barrier in their success at school. All of these will be given corresponding analysis, discussion and interpretation as regard to their contribution to the success of students enrolled in community colleges. Thematic Finding 1: Support It has been well known that one of the factors that contribute to student success is the support which students get from educators as well as from their peers. Studies reveal that all participants believed that the support that they have received from mentors, peers and family members played a big role towards their success in school. Support from people surrounding a student is notably a factor to consider in ensuring success of a child at school. The first support that would surely boost student confidence in continuing their education comes from their own mentors. This is said to be true because if mentors or educators are providing support to their students, they would be able to have a sense of encouragement, and this encouragement boosts their determination and therefore makes the student persist school (Hu Ma, 2010). This kind of mentor-student support is viewed as a counseling support, wherein this kind of support is seen to be beneficial for student to persist school (Fralick, n.d). This type of support has been supported by mentors or educators as beneficial for student’s persistence in school. Aside from support that student’s get from educators it is also seen that peer support plays a big role in the persistence of students at school. The role that the peers of an individual play a big role is seen not only in the education of an individual but as well as in their own lives. This is why studies have shown how beneficial peer support plays in assisting a student not only in academics as well as personal matters (Quimbita, 1991). Peer support is also seen as a major factor that contribute to the persistence of a child at school because of the fact that students get to share the learning experience with their peers in other words, they experience shared learning (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). It is here that peer support is indeed a major factor that would contribute to the persistence of a learner. Aside from mentors and peers, the one and most special source of support would come from family members. Different studies have revealed that the support coming from parents and other family members have been beneficial for student success (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). It is in this kind of support that students would see that the people play a big part in their lives are supporting them, this kind of support provides encouragement, and this is what students take in order for them to succeed in school. The support that learners gain from these different types of groups evidently brings out one thing that is so important in one’s success at school, and that is encouragement that brings about determination. In analyzing the role of support in student persistence at school, it could be clearly seen that the one factor that students get from these support is encouragement. This encouragement from supports such as educators, peers and family members makes students determined to succeed academically because they know that people believe in them, this alone is big factor to consider in ensuring student persistence at school. Comments: Thematic Finding 2: Financial Support It is common that students that finish high school would not continue on going to universities and colleges, the primary reason for this is mainly on financial issues. This has been an issue especially among students that belong to poor families (Smith, 2002). Seeing financial issue as a barrier for children to acquire an education, different financial support is now granted to learners in order for them to acquire an education (Wan Ko, 2005). Different studies have revealed that majority of the total population of the participants saw financial aid or assistance as one factor that contributed to their success at school. Financial support or aid is said to be beneficial to student’s persistence at school because of the financial support it gives to cater to the different need of the students in the duration of their stay in the school (Wright, 2010). The various financial aids available primarily cater to the financial needs of individuals during their whole stay at school; this is especially beneficial for students that belong to poor families (Hu, 2001). Educators who avail such assistance are provided full financial support, from enrollment to different school related finances, they are provided with all of these things (Wright, 2010). Especially among students that belong to poor families, this kind of support is something that would really help them in their pursuit of obtaining an education (Scrivener, 2008). Financial support is evidently a need amongst students, because of the fact that as years pass, the price of education n also increases and the less fortunate are deprived of an education because of this (Li,, 2008). Such financial support is evidently needed in community colleges, because of the fact that most of the population of students enrolled in community colleges belongs to financially challenged families (Wright, 2010). Some financial aid or services not only provides financial assistance, most services also provide rewards for academically high performing students (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). The additional perk from financial support makes students motivated to perform well academically (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). Such rewards are not only provided for financial sake alone, this kind of reward also provides learners with an opportunity to perform well academically (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). This shows that such financial assistance would not only provide the student with the chance to have an education, but as well as provide motivation to perform well in class. This kind of motivation brought about by financial support allows students to improve their grades, as well as provide enough motivation to bring about a sense of persistence in school. Studies and reports have revealed that indeed financial support plays a big role in student persistence in school. Financial support is seen to be one primary factor in student persistence in school because of how this service caters to the needs of students who are financially troubled and at the same time this service provides learners with an opportunity to do better at school and provide enough motivation for students to persist school

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Lead :: essays research papers

Lead is a lustrous, silvery metal that tarnishes in the presence of air and becomes a dull bluish gray. Soft and flexible, it has a low melting point (327 Â °C). Its chemical symbol, Pb, is from plumbum, the Latin word for waterworks, because of lead's extensive use in ancient water pipes. Itsatomic number is 82; its atomic weight is 207.19. Lead and lead compounds can be highly toxic when eaten or inhaled. Although lead is absorbed very slowly into the body, its rate of excretion is even slower. Thus, with constant exposure, lead accumulates gradually in the body. It is absorbed by the red blood cells and circulated through the body where it becomes concentrated in the soft tissues, especially the liver and kidneys. Lead can cause damage in the central nervous system and apparently can damage the cells making up the blood-brain barrier that protects the brain from many harmful chemicals. Symptoms of lead poisoning include loss of appetite, weakness, anemia, vomiting, and convulsions, sometimes leading to permanent brain damage or death. Children who ingest chips of old, lead-containing paint or are exposed to dust from the deterioration of such paint may exhibit symptoms. Levels of environmental lead considered nontoxic may also be involved in increased hypertension in a significant number of persons, according to studies released in the mid-1980s. As a result, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control in recent years have been revising downward the levels of environmental lead that it would consider safe. At one time, lead poisoning was common among those who worked with lead, but such workplace hazards have been largely curtailed. Lead has been used by humans since ancient times. It was used in ancient Egypt in coins, weights, ornaments, utensils, ceramic glazes, and solder. Lead is mentioned in the Old Testament. The Romans conveyed drinking water in lead pipes, some of which are still in operation. Roman slaves extracted and prepared the lead, describes a disease among the slaves that was clearly lead poisoning. Because of their potential toxicity, lead water pipes are no longer being installed. The greatest single use of lead metal today is in the plates of storage batteries for automobiles. The protective oxidation layer formed by lead in contact with such substances as air, sulfuric acid, and fluorine makes it highly resistant to corrosion. For this reason, lead has been used to make drainage pipes and lead chambers in sulfuric acid factories. It is also used as a roofing material. The softness and malleability of lead make it useful for sheathing telephone and television cables. Lead is used in solder because of its low melting point. When combined with tin, lead forms solder

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

British Imperialism: 1870-1914

There are many historical events that marked the British Imperialism of 1870 to 1914. Great Britain’s African rule was established and consolidated. This was focused mainly in the East and Southern Africa. British won the conflict with the French in Fashoda in 1898. Further, Britain also defeated Dutch resistance in the Boer War between 1899 and 1902. Britain also annexed Rhodesia into its territory. Great Britain got power over Burma and Malaysia. The two â€Å"opium wars† one in 1839 to 1842 and the second 1856 to 1860 widened the trade with China and the loss of Port of Vladivostok along the Pacific Ocean.Most importantly, Great Britain won the conflict for rule over India against France. The British East India Company was instrumental in consolidating the British rule in India. The British policy was very clear and that was to exploit India economically. There were problems for the British no doubt, for instance there was the â€Å"sepoy† mutiny of 1857-58 th at was quickly put down. Further, in 1885 Indian National Congress was established and that marked increased nationalism in India. This imperialism paid because during the World War I India supported Great Britain with men and finances (Matias.P 267). This brings us to the reason for British Imperialism between 1870 and 1914. The most important reason for the imperialism was economic. This was fuelled by the industrial revolution. This generated large amounts of capital in Great Britain as well as a huge demand for raw materials to feed the factories. There was a need for Britain to procure raw materials from abroad as well as seek investment opportunities for the new capital. Adding to this reason was the need to express nationalism. Imperialism provided Great Britain an opportunity to expand colonialism.There was a spirit of acquisition and a political race among the European countries to acquire more and more colonies (Laity, P. 74). Finally, the most powerful impetus in Great Br itain was the military. The military exerted great power in Britain and the military stressed the need for Britain to control importantly located areas and the need to set up military bases in key locations. To add to this cauldron of reasons was a religious fervor that favored imperialism. The extension of colonies was believed to be an act of humanitarianism in Great Britain.There are very mixed opinions on what benefits imperialism brought to Britain. There are suggestions by economists that with unemployment and industrial stagnation at home, the export of capital was a miscalculation. Economists believed that Great Britain would have been much better off with its capital at home rather than investing it abroad in colonies. The investments in colonies were not believed to be productive. Capture of new markets and expansion of economic imperialism was sadly behind schedule and satisfactory.Late nineteenth century capital investments in colonies were believed to be non-productive. The returns were lower than investments made back in Great Britain. On the other hand the argument that imperialism was humanist is nature is refuted by ‘nationalist’ writers who discuss the economic costs of British imperialism to Britain’s colonies, most prominently India. These writers claim that the British did not bring finances, medical advancement or prosperity to India; instead they brought with them a lasting legacy of backwardness and poverty.In other words it is argued that British imperialism brought economic impairment both to Britain and its colonies. Those who insist that British Imperialism brought benefits assert that Great Britain brought economic openness to its colonies especially in the period 1870 to 1914. This openness was brought not only to African and Asian colonies but also to South America and Japan. In addition, the proponents of British Imperialism point out that Great Britain allowed some emigration to some of its colonies and so p romoted the migration of labor from less developed to more developed societies.Moreover, historians claim that British Imperialism led to greater movement of investment capital to agrarian societies. Further, in its colonies British Imperialism has brought about good governance that includes the right to private property, reasonable and efficient government, What the British did in its colonies was to hold taxes to moderate levels. The British Imperialism is reputed to have provided its colonies with honest governments; there was not much nepotism. The government provided in the colonies was responsive to the needs of the people.The government and the law provided backing to enforcement of contracts and most importantly, the British imperialism provided in its colonies a right to individual liberty, especially against felony and corruption (Heyck, T, 35). The British established the common law in its colonies. From 1870s the British practiced the principle of keeping the tariffs low and the practice of cheap bread. In much of the British colonies the tariffs were also kept low except for the Dominions that were given the right to set their own tariffs in late nineteenth century.Had Britain withdrawn from its colonies in the late nineteenth century then larger tariffs would have been imposed against its exports and tariff barriers would have become the norm (Twaddle, M 17). The British Imperialism took place in the context of increasing tussle in Europe over strategic position, resources and esteem. During the period preceding 1870 that is between 1815 and 1871, Great Britain enjoyed profits of industrialization relatively easily. The British industry could produce expertly produced goods that could capture any market and out compete any other local products.However, the Franco-Prussian war in 1871 challenged the position of Britain. From the economic point of view what happened was that the industrial supremacy was gradually replaced with a need for financial conquest. In the latter half of the nineteenth century the industrial and commercial sluggishness in Britain spurred the formation of large companies and even conglomerates. The financial sector increased its influence over the British politics. There was a clamor that the government should protect the foreign investments.What prompted such demands was that the foreign investments were in assets like railroads and there was political unrest in several colonies where the investment had been made. In 1875 Britain purchased the shareholdings of the Egyptian ruler Ismail and managed to establish control over the Suez Canal. The French control in the area ended when the British occupied Egypt in 1882. After this the British wanted to control the Nile valley. For this they conquered Sudan between 1896 and 1898. The focus of the British Empire then focused on South Africa and in 1899 completed the takeover of that country.The British Empire had reaped great harvests from occupying Transvaa l with its deposits of gold and the Orange Free State (Cain, P 250). The British High Commissioner Alfred Miller pleaded for a British Empire that ranged from â€Å"Cape to Cairo† and that should be linked by railroad. This he explained would help exploit the minerals of the region. The military still exercised its say in the expansion of its Imperialism. To counter the expansion of Russia in 1878, Great Britain occupied Cyprus and established a base there. On the other side Afghanistan was annexed and occupied to block any Russian advance in that direction.This military strategic advancement led to the gory confrontation in Tibet (1903 – 1904). Economic explanations were provided for the far ranging increase of the British Empire. The explanation was that Great Britain was trying to protect its shrinking markets. It was under these explanations that Great Britain modified its policies in 1890 and tried to grab as much of the tropical African territories as possible. I n India after the ‘sepoy’ rebellion, there was a formal transfer of power from the British East India Company to the British government.The Governor-General the highest Company official in India was now appointed by the British government. In 1876 Queen Victoria was proclaimed the Empress of India and replaced the administration with civil servants trained in top British Universities. The princely states of India accepted the lordship of British. In 1880s British imperialism saw its expansion with the occupation of Burma. To sum, the British Imperialism of 1870-1914 saw the almost unbridled growth of the British Empire that gave birth to the saying â€Å"The sun never sets on the British Empire†.Even though there were costs that Britain had to bear in general it made several gains and established itself as a superior economic, military and political power. Reference: Cain, P. Hobson and Imperialism: Hobson Imperialism C, Oxford University Press,2002. Heyck, T, A History of the Peoples of the British Isles Routledge, Great Britain, 2002. Laity, P. The British Peace Movement 1870-1914, Oxford University press, 2001. Matias. P, The First Industrial Nation: The Economic History of Britain, Routledge, Great Britain, 1969. Twaddle, M. Imperialism and the State in the Third World, British Academy Press, 1992,

Monday, January 6, 2020

Should The Uk Government Listen Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2018 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? First, universal banking are type of banking system that includes commercial, investment, and other whole range of banking activities, such as insurance, all under one roof. These kinds of concentration results in a high size and power institutions, those only big banks can create. Generally, they are accounted to perform certain principles of corporate governance of the public interest, but sadly they display unimpressive record and unproven promises. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Should The Uk Government Listen Finance Essay" essay for you Create order These institutions receive special treatment from the governments because they form a huge part in the economys income and also they are known to be too big to fail. Big banks failure causes the governments huge amount of costs in bailouts and financial damages. The argument to whether to break down these big banks started many years ago, for instance in the United States they passed the Glass- Steagall act 1933 to stop their bank failures. The pressure of deregulation, competition, financial innovation, and global reach caused them to withdraw the act, but the recent crisis is causing a debate on whether to bring the act back. The idea of breaking the big banks had been rumbling since the crisis causing the UK Government to consider the claims and propose a solution. Current situation Looking at the current situation of the UKs economy, a serious intervention is needed. The banking industry is still in recovery from the 2008 financial crisis that was caused by the complexity of these big banks and their underestimation of risk, the crisis that brought the whole global economy and most importantly lost the public confidence and faith. Additionally, the critical situation caused by continues manipulations and shocks that universal banks are causing. Such as the recent LIBOR scandals (Barclays) that showed how big banks bend and break rules with impunity even when they are under intense regulatory assessment, additionally for insistence money laundering, which increasingly added further record of additional losses. Such scandals show that the size of these banks allows them to commit such massive manipulations and insider dealings. UK economy cant afford any unsuspected crisis that will lead to a multi-million pound bailout and consequent bank panics. Not just affe cting the banking sector, the whole market, even working class employees tend to lose their jobs. However, any decision will result in some costs and the future of the industry will depend on an immediate solution that will help recover UKs economy into a stable one. The separation, narrow, or structural separation of the big banks has both benefits and costs; the debate will discuss these main points to reflect the impact either ones will have on the UK economy: Economies of scale and scope The costs of overlooking the advantage of economies of scale and scope stand strongly against the separation of the universal banks, and encourage mergers. Economies of scale leads to the shrinking of information and transaction costs by achieving higher efficiency, through sharing the monitoring activities based on the same client information, use the same information technology platform, and the spread of the management operating costs. Example: when the lender and broker share the same market risk for the loan portfolio and corporate bond trading, the management can generate synergies for cost sharing. Also, it can lead to other types of cost savings such as marketing savings (using the same brand for multiple products), bank clients search, contracts, switching costs, etc. Economies of scope are achieved through cross-selling. The universal bank benefits from the insider information gained from their clients relationship. By this their clients get to choose from a basket of pro ducts provided by the same bank to meet their financial needs, example: offer their corporate client a suited loan to finance their investment project. They provide the public with convenience, innovation, and efficiency, by capably allocating and utilizing resources through matching the needs of their customers in different functions. These banks dont only provide these different financial products and services domestically; they have many branches all over the world. However, based on the empirical evidence by Walter (2003), economics of scale and scope only exists in small-medium size financial institutions. The large institutions, such as the universal banks, actually suffers diseconomy because of their size the management inefficiently runs the complex large-scale business (as the below diagram displays); leading to uncompetitive monopoly market, and engaging in complex independent divisions, they are decreasing their efficiency and increasing additional costs. Inefficiency is also caused by the over paying for resources, for insistence universal banks pays and rewards their managers higher than needed to secure their services. Also, after the crisis it became costly for universal banks to give loans to consumers as they are still engaged in the pay off of bad derivates gambling debts. In result, big banks dont show that much efficiency that smaller banks cant show. Furthermore, the big banks engagement in different and new exotic instruments leads to diseconomies of scope. It does them harm more than good, their increase of scope doesnt enhance their value and distracts them away. Economies-and-diseconomies.png Diversification and financial stability Another major argument point is diversification, as it leads to risk reduction. Universal banks enjoy such benefit from the different business lines it provides to the market. Due to the low correlation of revenues from the different functions, leads to a stable earning and decreases the bankruptcy risk leading to a higher credit rating and lower refinancing costs. Also, from a macroeconomic perspective, the risk reduction will promote financial stability as due to the consistency of the funds, decrease of the counterparty risk in inter-bank markets, and lower probability of bank-runs. For instance, because the investment banking is volatile to the market fluctuations their failure could be absorbed by the profits of the lending activities, whereas if it was not diversified it will cause the bank to bankruptcy that will affect the stability of the whole financial system. Not just investment banks other many specialized banks (savings and loans banks) failed because they were not we ll-diversified in their assets, liabilities, and operations. The greatest example is the mergers of pure investment banks during the crisis because they couldnt afford to stand alone. However, the concern of the spill-over effect of the operations of the riskier investment banking the so-called casino banking, over the retail banking arm, the safe side. Having a casino banking means when a commercial bank arm gets engaged in pure risk taking projects and investments, through speculative trading in wholesale financial markets; trading in assets, securities, derivatives and other speculative bets, to exploit profit. Taking advantage of the retail funds and use information of their customers, information asymmetry, this shows no transparency and disrupts the free market. While in contrast, commercial banking are suppose to be restricted from engaging in risky activities due to strict regulations and trust to their customers deposits. However temptations will always encourage the bi g banks to find ways to overlook and find loop holes to go around regulations, showing misusage of the individual consumer that leads to financial losses and moral issues, considering that they have nothing to do with traditional depository functions. The task of avoiding the spill-over of the riskier security trading business to the safety of the deposit taking is still crucial to the regulators. Especially that the effect can cause reputation risk, a scandal that will lead to loss of the over-all brand and the loss of the customers to other banks. The act will result in conflict of interest which acts as a major obvious disadvantage of growing universal banks and leads to the loss of the public interest. It can arise in different ways; such as among lender, underwriter, equity holder, sales broker, asset manager, or insurer. For example: using private information to remove loans with poorer quality from the balance sheet by converting the loans into public securities. Such lack of transparency puts the loss of the clients confidence on the edge and encourages the bank managers to take on more risks for profit maximization. Considering their too big to fail guarantee and deposit insurance, the central bank has to act as the lender of last resort, which increases the moral hazard problems. Considering the financial stability the size and power of the universal banks directs to a concentrated monopoly market players, resulting in a high market authority and hard to regulate. To be able to recover, UK financial system needs a healthy and successful stable economy. Universal banks existing might not help, because it needs two important elements freedom and competition. The monopoly structure that these banks have eliminates such stability and harms the economy. The smaller banks havent been able to expand and flourish because of the big banks concentration, even though they are well capitalized institutions that have the ability to show prospects and gain the UK economy. Narrow banking The other type of reform is narrowing and limiting the functions of the bank, and so-called narrow banking, which is a proposed banking solution type. It is a banking type that is way too safe and guaranteed. The idea seems as the perfect structure; however it is not the suitable reform to heal the economy. Because they are heavily regulated they dont offer the same return as the loosely-regulated wider bank competitors, and there are limits to their development reach. As a result, it will cause the depositors, fund providers, to switch to the less regulated banks for higher return, because at the end profit is more important than guarantees. They will not provide tools to prevent any further financial crisis. The future of UK economy The recovery and rebalance of the economy will be taking a long time in process. As the growth will be relatively subdued by the historic standards for the upcoming years as the banking system remains damaged. So the UK economy future will depend on the government decision to reform their banking system. The banking system and economy cant afford any more damage, so that is why the Independent Commission in Britain had proposed to the government the idea of ring fence. It is a reform of the universal banks to not split them up but to avoid the arms of the casino banking; separate legal entity within the group (structural separation). It will be implemented around 2019, but both non-risky and risky activities will still be remaining under the ring. However, there are banks starting to ask for flexibility in implementing the ring fence showing early indication that such reform might not even work. Additionally, considering the new rules from the upcoming Basel III, this will require banks to hold a three times as much capital as they presently do, might still not be sufficient enough to be used as a cushion in the event of a collapse. Conclusion Universal banks are too big to fail and their unpredictable fail causes a massive impact and distress to the banking system, economy, and confidence of the public. The recent crisis causes that were known because of the ill-managed, highly concentrated and undercapitalized financial sector made the public demand a separation of these big banks. However, whatever reform (separation, narrow banking, or structural separation) the UK government decides to take has both benefits and costs that should be considered. Through the essay a debate were displayed to trade-off between these benefits and costs, through looking at the economies of scale and scope, diversification, and financial stability. The over-all result shows no superiority of one system over the others. Whatever the reform results in, the most important aspect is that the banking system needs an internal capital market (high quality capital and liquidity management) in case if an external financing distortion in the market. It is important that a problem in a particular area dont disrupt across the system, because it will end in an every lasting uncertainty of a systemic collapse and failure cant be eliminated. Most importantly people need to have confidence that their financial system is safe and stable, and that it will function right to provide stable service to the UK economy. Also, ensuring that the UK economy remain an attractive market, such as for the foreign banks.